爽8槔老虎机: 美国9月19日发布最新《反恐形势国别报告》,对华反恐政策指手画脚

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原标题:美国9月19日发布最新《反恐形势国别报告》,对华反恐政策指手画脚

美国国务院当地时间9月19日发布《2017年度反恐形势国别报告》说,去年发生的恐怖袭击事件,和2016年相比,数量有所下降。

报告指出,2017年,国际反恐取得重要进展,发生恐怖袭击的数量较2016年下降23%,因恐怖袭击而死亡的人数下降27%;此外,被恐怖组织“伊斯兰国”占领的土地,99%得到解放。

报告强调,全球的反恐形势依然严峻和复杂。

报告说,“伊斯兰国”虽然丧失了在伊拉克和叙利亚所控制的领土,但是该组织继续转变运作模式,从中央指挥控制的模式向分散模式转变,包括将发起恐怖行动的决定移交给受“伊斯兰国”影响的本土恐怖分子,鼓励同情“伊斯兰国”的人利用包括大型车辆在内一切可利用的武器在远离战场的公共区域发动袭击,像美国纽约、英国曼切斯特、西班牙巴塞罗那、埃及西奈都有这类袭击的发生。

报告还说,“基地”组织过去一年悄然发展壮大,其在全球的网络和分支,包括在叙利亚的“努斯拉阵线”和在索马里的青年党,也策划发动了多起造成严重伤亡的恐怖袭击事件。

报告对各国的反恐情况和形势做了评估。与去年的评估一样,今年的报告认为,伊朗仍然是全球最主要的恐怖主义国家赞助者,并继续支持针对以色列的袭击。

报告指出,恐袭目标越来越呈现平民化,公民和私有财产成为恐袭的重点目标。

在涉华部分,报告说,有迹象表明,“伊斯兰国”对中国及其海外利益构成威胁,一些中国公民加入了“伊斯兰国”和其他恐怖组织。

按照之前的“习惯”,美国依然对华反恐政策指手画脚。

报告认为,中国反恐目标仍然主要针对“东突厥斯坦伊斯兰运动”(ETIM)的极端分子,并以打击“恐怖主义、分裂主义和极端主义”“三股势力”继续加强境内外安全管控,引起所谓“国际社会人权担忧”。

报告称,中国是反洗钱金融行动特别工作组、亚太反洗钱集团等反洗钱组织的成员,但是美国担心,中国没有充分地控制恐怖主义融资。

据美国国务院网站介绍,《反恐形势国别报告》是依据美国国会要求制定的年度报告,在2004年以后用来替代《全球恐怖主义模式》年度报告。其中,对中国反恐政策进行指三道四、指手画脚,夹杂很多不实内容。

中一贯反对美国做法,表示不满,不能接受。例如,2016年:

外交部:美国对中国反恐政策说三道四,中方不能接受

外交部发言人华春莹在2016年6月3日举行的例行记者会上表示,恐怖主义是人类文明的头号公敌。合力打击恐怖主义是国际社会当务之急和应尽之责。在反恐问题上搞“双重标准”是有关国家多年反恐却越反越恐的重要原因,无助于国际反恐合作。

有记者提问,美国务院日前发布《2015年国别反恐报告》,其中提到,中国反恐主要关注“东伊运”,加强对新疆管控和对宗教信仰限制,对定性为暴力恐袭的事件未能提供充分信息,阻止外国记者和观察员前往袭击事发地进行核查等。你对此有何评论?

华春莹表示,中方注意到美国国务院发布的有关报告,对报告涉华不实之词表示不满,对美方就中美反恐合作的不客观评价表示遗憾。通过发表一个报告,对中国等有关国家反恐政策说三道四,中方不能接受。

华春莹说,恐怖主义是人类文明的头号公敌。合力打击恐怖主义是国际社会当务之急和应尽之责。在反恐问题上搞“双重标准”是有关国家多年反恐却越反越恐的重要原因,无助于国际反恐合作。

华春莹强调,中方一贯重视并积极参与国际反恐合作,将继续本着相互尊重、平等合作原则,同包括美方在内的其他国家开展反恐交流合作。“东伊运”是中美等国共同参与列名、联合国认定的国际恐怖组织,打击以“东伊运”为代表的“东突”恐怖势力是中方在反恐问题上的核心关切,希望有关国家切实尊重。

以下是本次美国国务院反恐形势国别报告的前言部分,推送原文供阅读批判

The United States and our international partners made major strides to defeat and degrade international terrorist organizations in 2017. We succeeded in liberating nearly all of the territory ISIS once held in Iraq and Syria. We increased pressure on al-Qa’ida to prevent its resurgence. We amplified efforts to expose and curtail Hizballah’s malign activities inside Lebanon, in the Middle East, and across the globe. We worked with allies and partners around the world to expand information sharing, improve aviation security, enhance law enforcement and rule of law capacities, and prevent terrorist recruitment and recidivism.

Despite our successes, the terrorist landscape grew more complex in 2017. ISIS, al-Qa’ida, and their affiliates have proven to be resilient, determined, and adaptable, and they have adjusted to heightened counterterrorism pressure in Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan, Libya, Somalia, Yemen, and elsewhere. They have become more dispersed and clandestine, turning to the internet to inspire attacks by distant followers, and, as a result, have made themselves less susceptible to conventional military action. Further, the return or relocation of foreign terrorist fighters from the battlefield has contributed to a growing cadre of experienced, sophisticated, and connected terrorist networks, which can plan and execute terrorist attacks.

As ISIS lost territory, it continued to shift away from a centralized command and control structure toward a more diffuse model. It has experimented with and employed small unmanned aerial systems and has used rudimentary chemical weapons. The group encouraged sympathizers to use whatever weapons were at hand – such as large vehicles – against soft targets and public spaces. Increasingly, the responsibility for deciding where, when, and how to attack has devolved to homegrown terrorists inspired or enabled by ISIS to conduct operations far from the war zone. In 2017, we saw such attacks in Manchester, UK; Barcelona, Spain; Sinai, Egypt; Marawi, Philippines; New York City; and elsewhere.

Al-Qa’ida quietly expanded its membership and operations in 2017. Its global network includes the remnants of its core in Afghanistan and Pakistan, al-Nusrah Front (in Syria), al-Qa’ida in the Arabian Peninsula, al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb, al-Shabaab (in Somalia), and al-Qa’ida in the Indian Subcontinent. Nusrah’s formation of Hayat Tahrir al-Sham, drawing in other hardline Syrian opposition groups, exemplified its effort to rebrand itself to appeal to a wider segment of the Syrian population. Al-Qa’ida affiliates also conducted major attacks, such as in October 2017, when al-Shabaab detonated a truck bomb in the heart of Mogadishu, killing over 300 people, the deadliest terrorist attack in Somali history. Al-Qa’ida leader Ayman al-Zawahiri continued to publicly call for supporters to attack the U.S. government and citizens globally.

Iran remained the world’s leading state sponsor of terrorism and continued to support attacks against Israel. It maintained its terrorist-related and destabilizing activities through the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) Qods Force and the Lebanon-based terrorist group Hizballah. Iran is responsible for intensifying multiple conflicts and undermining the legitimate governments of, and U.S. interests in, Afghanistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Lebanon, and Yemen. In particular, Iran and Hizballah are emerging from the Syria conflict emboldened and with valuable battlefield experience that they seek to leverage across the globe. IRGC leader Qasem Soleimani recruited and deployed Shia militias from diverse ethnic groups across the Middle East and South Asia to fight in defense of the Assad dictatorship in Syria. Beyond the Middle East, Iran and its terrorist affiliates and proxies posed a significant threat and demonstrated a near-global terrorist reach. Notably, in June 2017, the FBI arrested two suspected Hizballah operatives in Michigan and New York who allegedly were conducting surveillance and intelligence gathering on behalf of the organization, including in the United States.

Regionally focused terrorists groups remained a threat in 2017. For example, Hamas continued to rebuild its military infrastructure and capabilities to support terrorist attacks against Israel. Additionally, Pakistan-based Jaish-e-Mohammed and Lashkar e-Tayyiba continued to pose a regional threat in the subcontinent. Some regional and local terrorist groups have avoided greater international attention by remaining independent from ISIS and al-Qa’ida while others may have concluded that the benefits of greater expertise, resources, and prominence outweighed the risks of a formal connection with a notorious transnational terrorist network.

In short, the nature of the terrorist threat confronting the United States and our allies around the world evolved in 2017. While the immediate dynamics that led terrorists to flock to Iraq and Syria since 2014 have diminished, other factors that terrorists exploit to recruit new followers remained a challenge, such as sectarianism, failing states, and conflict zones. More than ever, it remains a critical priority for the United States and our allies to defeat our terrorist adversaries.

In 2017, the United States led efforts to enhance the international community’s law enforcement and other civilian capabilities that are increasingly essential in the next phase of global counterterrorism. In December, with U.S. leadership, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2396, with 66 co-sponsors. UN Security Council resolution (UNSCR) 2396 requires member states to collect airline reservation data to block terrorist travel, to develop watchlists of known and suspected terrorists, and to use biometrics to spot terrorists who might be trying to cross their borders. The resolution also calls on UN members to enact serious criminal offenses that will enable them to prosecute and penalize terrorists who have returned from the battlefield.

In addition, throughout 2017, the State Department led bilateral diplomatic efforts with key countries to improve border and aviation security and information sharing. We increased the number of Homeland Security Presidential Directive 6 (HSPD-6) arrangements to share information about known and suspected terrorists by almost 15 percent in 2017. Our total number of HSPD-6 partners now stands at 69, including all 38 members of the Visa Waiver Program. The United States also deployed the latest border security systems to key counterterrorism partners, provided screening technology and training, and worked to expand global engagement on transportation-related threats. Border security support through the Personal Identification Secure Comparison and Evaluation Systems (PISCES) expanded to 260 ports of entry in 23 countries.

We also used foreign assistance resources to enable our partners to better identify, deter, disrupt, apprehend, prosecute, and convict terrorists and their supporters. Our goal is for partners to be able to confront the terrorist threats they face themselves without turning to the United States for assistance. We placed special emphasis on helping partner countries enact appropriate legal frameworks to bring criminal charges against terrorist offenders. At the end of 2017, 70 countries had laws in place to prosecute and penalize foreign terrorist fighters, and 69 had prosecuted or arrested foreign terrorist fighters or their facilitators.

The United States also worked to stanch the flow of money to terrorist networks by designating 30 organizations and individuals as Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs) and/or Specially Designated Global Terrorists (SDGTs). This included top ISIS and al-Qa’ida leaders and operatives. The State Department also continued to expose and sanction states that back terrorism. We designated the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea as a State Sponsor of Terrorism in 2017, and also designated key Hizballah figures as SDGTs as we pushed back on Iranian support for terrorism across the globe.

These efforts are only a snapshot of our ongoing work to protect the United States, our allies, and interests from terrorism. Country Reports on Terrorism 2017 provides a more detailed review of last year’s successes and challenges so we can consider how to strengthen our counterterrorism efforts going forward. As we look to the rest of 2018 and beyond, the United States remains committed to working with our allies and partners to confront the shared threat of global terrorism. I hope this report will serve as a useful resource for those seeking to better understand this threat and our efforts to defeat it.

Ambassador Nathan A. Sales

Coordinator for Counterterrorism返回搜狐,查看更多

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